Art and Culture

The origin of the word “art” can be traced back to the old English “thou art” which means “you are”. Again, art as in “fine arts” owes its root to the Latin “ars” or “artis”. However, in comparison to the dual meanings in which we may express the word, the second meaning has remained unchanged with the process of time. The word “culture” however originated from the Latin language. It said to have a Latin base “colere” which means to inhabit, to cultivate, or to honor. Broadly it can be said to be a human activity carrying several meanings and definitions.

The two distinct words “art and culture” if linked with each other, it exhibits two distinct concepts

Art may be a product of the extensive culture (cultivation) of human sentiments.

Culture of different strata of society at different places at different time has been expressed in art.
Art can be said to be a “result” of extensive culture of human emotions, sentiment and thought of an artist, supplemented with the artist’s skill. It is a product of an artist’s cultivation of different strata of society at various moments. Thus if one can culture on society at different situation, he can generate a good piece of art .So we may say that “art is a reflection of society” at different time.

Practically time being the dictator in the evolution of society; it also influences a product of art. The classical period was a period of reason, order and rules.
Art has thereby exhibited such meanings at that time.

The Romantic period being a period of reasoning, so the dominant subject of art was emotion, adventure and imagination. Art in its cultural form gained impetus during the renaissance. Again, the 19th century culture was the theory of truth and beauty thus the form of art that came up during this period was based on “truth” and “beauty”.

Early 20th century culture brought forth the concept of modernism -this is the time, when the human nature was undergoing turmoil. The bizarre mundane society was undergoing a deviation from humanity at this time. The late 20th century is the postmodern period The puzzled society is now trapped in such a ditch that an exit from this phase is next to impossible. Men are said to have been transformed into robots. Junked up with work pressure they have little or no time to cherish their emotions and sentiments .The work of art that comes up at this stage are to call up an attention to human sentiment and art at large. The overall disjointed sentiment when cultured by an artist; it is reflected in the works of art through abstract expressions, images, ideas and concepts.

Besides, a piece of art may also echo a specific culture. We may find several piece of art vividly exposing the “Byzantine culture”. Again a work of art might focus on “Iranian culture”, “western culture” or “modern culture” and so on. Moreover the art of working in a particular place at a particular time is the work culture. Likewise we have club culture or organizational culture.

Actually art in its own form has developed itself with its multicultural heritage over time. Thus, it is worth saying that both art and culture are complimentary to each other and an overall support to each other to attain some sort of fulfillment at large.

Artistic Product Print Works

In case you have any huge sales coming up later on, I would encourage a similar strategy. Indeed, sports can be a method of networking. For lots of people, it is a second home place to hash out family difficulties, play backgammon, take pleasure in the day’s very first drink.

It is very important to realize that there are particular similarities and excellent differences between the conventional art market and its blockchain equivalent. After doing some research, if at this point you wind up holding a true treasure, selling your item through an art auction may wind up being the best option for netting the majority of your money. My client based Illustration jobs normally have an editorial goal or visual message they need to send but my fine art is quite a bit more open to the stories that I want to tell.

Once you are satisfied that the shop is moving in the correct direction, then you will need to get started publicizing your shop. Home decorating with western paintings is the 1 approach to present your house a warm, comfortable look that you are able to feel it. An auction house will sometimes get a piece to restore and sell at a subsequent date if it’s a high demand item which has not been cared for properly.

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Anthropologists and art historians have gained greater comprehension of the art from different parts of Africa. Wildlife art has ever been a favorite topic within general society. Artists increase the crucial fabric of London.

So you visit a museum and all the art is either by the very same painter, or in exactly the same time period, or of the exact same style. The heart of beautiful and meaningful paintings is highly suggested by men and women in the modern modern world. If you’re still unsure whether you’ve got a painting or a print, look carefully to see whether you can identify little dots on the surface.

It’s a fact that one-off events featuring stars from different media wouldn’t fit with the most traditional idea of what a gallery does. There are various reasons for various folks to go to the art gallery. Next level artists are going to be able to create lyrical verses that do not just explore the rhythmic possibilities of a specific tune but in addition weave melodies through the shifting harmonic sequences.

The Problem for Mainstream Physicalism

We look at the world as physical or material, but we are not perceiving reality as it really is. Why is this?

We have evolved through a process of natural selection to survive. Our intuition is that the mind is like a camera or a window that faithfully shows us the world we are looking out on. But, if we were to see the world as it is, we would have trouble surviving. There would be just too much information pouring in, which in turn would affect our ability to survive. Materialism tells us that reality has no inherent “qualities”, is completely abstract and that matter itself can only be described through a process of measuring (finding “quantities” of things).

All our perceptions are encoded and inferential only. Evolution by natural selection does not favour the ability to “see” the world as it really is. This means our idea of what reality is, is demonstrably false. For example, science tells us that when we see the colour red, that perception of red is happening inside our mind. It is a felt experience. The colour red as we know it, does not exist out there.

So, the material or physical world we see, and experience is just a representation that our minds create. Materialism itself is like the map of reality, but of course it is not the territory. The map is NOT reality itself. Our technical perception enhancing instruments do not change this fact because like everything else, these instruments are filtered through our human experience which creates order for us out of what would otherwise appear to us to be chaos. Bottom line is that what we see as reality is what we NEED to see to survive and to maintain our structural integrity.

This map we’ve created is wildly successful in helping us navigate unseen reality. But the problem that arises for materialism is that the map is breaking down (ie: doesn’t work in every scenario and some of our new technology flies in its face). In other words – we now need to take a look at what is beyond physicalism (our map of reality).

We started out at the beginning of the Enlightenment carving out a safe space for science to work by saying ‘let the scientists focus on the material physical world (what is seen or perceived by us) and leave the Church to manage people’s inner world’, the world of experience and quality. In this way, the qualitative experiential aspect of ourselves was cut off from anything “out there” that we called matter. It protected and allowed scientists to get on and work away in peace without risk of being burnt at the stake by wandering into the metaphysical domain.

Science then busied itself measuring everything it possibly could and eventually over time, decided that matter is all that is real. Reality is only that which can be described through the process of measuring alone. We forgot that those measurements are just descriptions of the thing being described and not the thing itself. Physicalism now says that the description somehow precedes the thing being described. This is a nonsense!

Another way you could put this is that we now ‘believe’ that matter can be exhaustively defined through measurement or quantities. No ‘qualities’ are needed. We then go the next step and say, in fact, qualities are not even real. This is a circular non logical approach because the starting point of everything in our reality is our experience or the ‘quality’ or ‘qualia’ of it.

Under physicalism’s approach, none of our experiences are real, love itself cannot be real. Surely, most of us think that love is perhaps the most important quality or experience that we ever have.

Let me ask you to imagine for a moment that you are not conscious in any way. You now have no awareness at all. What is left?… Nothing is left! So, without this starting place of qualia, experience or consciousness, we have nothing. There is nothing to measure, no quantities to describe. Physicalism forgets or chooses to ignore this. That’s not to say materialism isn’t useful. Of course it is! From an evolutionary standpoint it is exactly what we should have expected before we started measuring. But it doesn’t then follow that materialism can adequately describe all of reality or even all of what we think of as the scientific realm of reality. Afterall, science and religion are just cultural labels or symbols for artificial divisions we ourselves have created.

The problem we have here, is that EVERYTHING starts out as pure experience. Think back to your world as a 5-year-old child when it was full of sights, sounds, tastes and smells. A time before the mind started conceptualizing its reality through culture and language. As adults the level of sophistication we reach is truly mind boggling. We’ve even created many new abstract ‘qualities’ through our measurements of matter. Things like, mass, charge, momentum and geometric relationships which have all recreated our known world.

But what we are encountering now is not some problem to be solved in the future by science but is a fundamental flaw at the very heart of science. Back in the 1990s, David Chalmers described this as the hard problem of consciousness.

Matter has no stand-alone existence. It cannot explain experience, yet experience is the starting point. It comes BEFORE everything else. You could say that it is all we have. Anything beyond experience is either a felt or a theoretical abstraction that we ourselves create.

The Print Oeuvre of Albrecht Durer and His Role in Art History

Albrecht Durer once said, “I hold that perfection of form and beauty is contained in the sum of all man.” For over five hundred years, historians and collectors alike have held the opinion that this perfection and beauty is contained in the sum of his body of work.Born nineteen years after Leonardo da Vinci and a mere four years before Michelangelo, Albrecht Durer was revered by those of the Italian Renaissance, such as Giovanni Bellini and Andreas Montegna. Even Ferdinand Columbus, the (illegitimate) son of Christopher Columbus collected one hundred seventy-four of Albrecht Durer’s prints.Had his body of work just consisted of his two thousand drawings or over one hundred paintings and alter pieces and three published books on theoretical subjects, that would be enough to place him in the pantheon of those who were known as true Renaissance men (and women).But it is Albrecht Durer’s print oeuvre of over two hundred fifty woodcuts and one hundred five intaglios that changed the course of artistic history. Know as the “Apelles of the black lines”, Albrecht Durer was the first in western art to be both the artist and the publisher with his great woodcut cycle, the Apocalypse. In other words, he was the first graphic artist in western art.To put this in perspective, Magellan was the first to sail around the world; or the Wright brothers were first at flight; or Yeager was the first to break the sound barrier; or Armstrong was the first to step on the moon; or Bandaraike was the first woman to be elected Chancellor of any country; but, Durer was the first to understand the importance of freeing himself from the lucrative but demanding shackles of commission work and take his reproductive art on paper to market!No small task when you consider who was to follow: Rembrandt, Whistler, Cassatt, Picasso, Dali, Miro, Chagall, Warhol.This is not a debate as to who was the best, the most prolific, or the most gifted. I know for sure it is certainly not me. As much as I appreciate art I could not find a straight line with a ruler!This is simply a discourse as to who was the first to commit their work to reproductive prints in western art; and, according to the scholars who possess far more education, expertise and scholarship than myself (but certainly not passion), it is the Renaissance man, Albrecht Durer.

A Venice Vacation Promises Art, History and Much More

If you’re looking for the perfect way to kick off the fall season, a vacation in Venice, one of Italy’s richest cities both culturally and historically, is sure to hit the spot. Venice is world-famous, among many things, for its beautiful Gothic style architecture, ornate glass work, annual Carnival of Venice (for which participants don elaborate masks and costumes) and Grand Canal, the banks of which are lined with more than 150 centuries-old buildings. Home to some of the most famous composers the world has ever known – from Antonio Vivaldi to Giovanni Picchi – the city has been the setting for such renowned works of literature as Othello and movies including The Italian Job.Set roughly 240 miles from Rome, it is home to St. Mark’s Basilica, which lies on Piazza San Marco; the Rialto Bridge, one of four bridges spanning the Grand Canal; and Ca’ Rezzonico, a public museum that boasts a vast collection of 18th century Venetian art. One of the city’s most alluring attributes is that it is uber-pedestrian friendly. Interestingly, vehicles are not permitted within the city of Venice, which is actually made up of a group of islands. Instead, people get around by foot or boat. While it may seem odd at first blush, the fact there are no cars, buses, or motorcycles on Venice’s narrow streets means more room to stroll around and take in the historic environs.Among Venice’s architectural gems are its grand hotels, some of which are ideally set in the heart of the old city. Hotel Ateneo Venice, only minutes away from Piazza San Marco and La Fenice Theatre, couples the charm of a 17th century Venetian residence with a full spectrum of modern amenities. If you want to be far removed from the hustle and bustle of Venice, you can head to the centrally located Locanda La Corte Venice, whose courtyard makes the perfect setting for an early morning breakfast or an evening of wining and dining under the stars. And only a short walk from the Rialto Bridge and St. Mark’s Square is Casa Santa Maria Formosa, which delights travelers with its striking neo-gothic design, intimate rooms and sweeping canal views.If getting up close with nature is high on your wish list, look no further than Best Western Villa Mabapa on the island of Lido. This elegant Art Nouveau style villa lies immersed in a lush garden laden with flowers and overlooks the Venetian Lagoon. A private beach, 18 hole golf course and scores of elegant shops are also just minutes away. (Art and film buffs will appreciate that the Venice Film Festival is held here every September.) Other noteworthy properties on the Lido include the Quattro Fontane Hotel – of which noted English poet Robert Browning was a frequent patron – and the budget-friendly Helvetia Hotel, which was originally built as a restaurant and tobacco shop in the 1920s.Whether your idea of a perfect vacation includes communing with nature or soaking up art and history, Venice teems with great surprises around every corner.